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Recurrence patterns after curative gastrectomy for pStage II/III gastric cancer: Exploratory analysis of the randomized controlled JCOG1001 trial

Published:November 15, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2022.11.093

      Abstract

      Background

      Peritoneal, lymph node, and hematogenous recurrence patterns are common after potentially curative surgery for gastric cancer. However, clinicopathological characteristics associated with each recurrence type have rarely been comprehensively reported among patients who received a unified treatment strategy and follow-up protocol. Understanding these recurrence patterns would help with early detection of recurrence and a personalized follow-up plan. We investigated the initial recurrence patterns after curative gastrectomy using data from the randomized clinical JCOG1001 trial.

      Methods

      Of 1204 patients enrolled in JCOG1001, 932 pStage II/III patients were included. Initial recurrence dates and patterns were recorded by attending physicians according to the protocol. Risk factors for hematogenous, lymph node, and peritoneal recurrence were determined by univariable and multivariable analyses using the Fine–Gray model.

      Results

      Overall, 253 patients developed recurrence. Hematogenous recurrence was the most frequent pattern (n = 115), followed by peritoneal (n = 104) and lymph node recurrence (n = 70). Differentiated type (p = 0.0028), pT4 (p = 0.0466), and pN3 (p < 0.0001) were associated with hematogenous recurrence; however, D2+ lymphadenectomy reduced it (p = 0.0161). Patients with large (≥5 cm) tumors (p = 0.0312), pT4 (p < 0.0001), pN3 (p = 0.0013), and undifferentiated histologic type (p = 0.0001) had significantly higher rates of peritoneal recurrence. Extended lymph node metastasis (pN3) was the only risk factor (p < 0.0001) for lymph node recurrence.

      Conclusions

      Clinicopathological features differed according to the recurrence patterns. Vigilant follow-up with an understanding of recurrence patterns might be beneficial for some high-risk patients.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      CD (Clavien–Dindo), CI (confidence interval), HR (hazard ratio), JCOG (Japan Clinical Oncology Group)
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